心臟病及保健 Heart Disease And Health   http://心臟病.tw   www.heartdisease.idv.tw  

[心臟病及保健]提供心臟病及保健一般及專業知識. 適合民眾,病患(了解心臟病及保健一般知識及專業概念)及醫護人員(學習或複習心臟病及保健專業知識)

                                               食品營養

                                                  李應紹博士

 

-         營養影響生理及心理,抵抗力及壽命,與健康息息相關。

      好營養 = 好健康。

-         營養過量 à 血管硬化,肥胖,高血壓,糖尿病,膽病等

營養缺乏 à 貧血,佝僂病,骨質疏鬆,甲狀腺病等

-         礦物質過量 à 掉髮,身體各組織變化

-         食品提供熱量,營養素及植物化學品(phytochemicals),能提升健康及生長。

-         男性每天熱量需求約2200大卡,女性約1500大卡,以能達到理想體重為標準。

      食品需含碳水化合物 50%,脂肪 30%及蛋白質 12-15%

 

                                                      食品主要營養素

1. 碳水化合物        提供能量及熱量(1毫克 à 4大卡)

2. 脂肪                                      ,,        (1毫克 à 9大卡)

3. 蛋白質                建造及修復組織,並提供能量及熱量(1毫克 à 4大卡)

4. 維生素                調節生理機能

5. 礦物質                                  ,,

6.                                           ,,

 

                            

= 體內細胞及組織成分,佔體重 50-70%

-         作用 = 1. 溶劑及輸送營養素及排泄物

                  2. 水解作用及新陳代謝

                  3. 關節及消化系統滑潤

                  4. 體温調節

                  5. 水及電解質平衡

                  6. 酸鹼平衡

 

                                                   均衡飲食

-         含所需營養素以保持及提升健康

-         食品四大類:-                           每天所需份量(參考食物代換表)

1. 五轂類 (碳水化合物)                                     4

2. 肉類                                                                2

3. 蔬菜水果類                                                    4

4. 奶品類                                                        2 – 4

   

                       飲食指南

1.        均衡攝食各類食品

2.       維持理想體重

3.        少油

4.        盡量選用五轂及高纖維食品

5.        少糖少鹽

6.        若飲酒需適量

 

種類                      食品來源                                 缺乏症          過多症

 

                                                      碳水化合物

1.單醣類如葡     麵包,五轂,     - 提供能及熱量       虛弱,           肥胖,

萄糖,果糖    餅乾,米,          - 脂肪代謝              體重減輕       掉牙,

奶糖                馬鈴薯,玉米,

2.雙醣類如蔗     碗豆,豆,香蕉,

  糖,麥芽糖,  蘋果,梨,甜品,

  乳糖                  糖,糖槳,蜜糖,

3.多醣類如澱     糖果等

  粉,糊精,肝糖,

  植物纖維

 

                                                                 脂肪

-脂肪酸及甘油     肥肉如培根,    -提供能及熱量        濕疹,           肥胖,

-三甘油脂及         香腸,奶油,    - 組織結構及          體重減輕,    心臟病,

 膽固醇                 起士,牛奶,      功能所需如細       生長遲滯       

                              蛋黄                      胞膜,脂肪酸

                              植物如食用油,  及維生素媒介

                              堅果,巧克力

 

                                                               蛋白質

氨基酸                  動物(最高品質)    - 建造及修復        肌肉喪失,水腫,

                              如肉類,魚,         組織                    創傷癒合不良,

                              禽,蛋,牛奶       - 荷爾蒙及酶        生理及心理發育

                              植物(低品質)           成分以調節        不良

                              如玉米,五轂,     生理機能

                              堅果,豆               -提供能及熱量

 

                                                               脂溶性維生素

維生素A               動物如油,肝,    - 生長                    生長遲滯        厭食,

                              奶油,乳酪,        -維持眼,皮         夜間眼腈        掉髮,暴噪,

                              起士,蛋黄             骨,粘膜健康      濛糊,皮        頭痛,肝脾

                                                              -預防感染             膚乾糙,         腫大,關節痛,

                                                                                            易感染             黄疸

 

維生素D               陽光(最佳來源),     -生長                     肌肉痙攣,     嘔吐,虛弱,

                             ,,蛋黄,乳酪,     -鈣鏻代謝             骨牙健康         體重減輕,

                             奶油                         -建造及維持         不良,佝僂病,   多尿,氮血症,

                                                               骨及牙                 軟骨病,             腎,心及主動

                                                                                            骨質疏鬆          脈損害

 

維生素E              麥,蔬菜,油,     -保護細胞如          少見。             如維生素A

                            豆,花生                   紅血球                 肌肉喪失,      及D

                                                             -生育                      紅血球溶血,

                                                             -抗氧化                  運動失調

 

維生素K              蔬菜,水果,        -凝血功能             凝血功能不良    肝及腎

                             五轂,奶品,                                                                  損害

                             肉類(不良來源)

 

                                                              水溶性維生素

維生素B1             酵母,麥,             醣代謝                 厭食,虛弱,

thiamine                豬肉,內臟                                         便泌,暴噪,

               脚氣病

 

維生素B2             內臟,牛奶,       -生長                     口角炎,唇炎,

riboflavin              蔬菜                       -,脂肪及蛋        皮膚炎,頭痛,

                                                             白質新陳代謝      眼晴疲勞

                                                            -組織維護

 

Niacin                   肉,禽,魚,       -新陳代謝             癩皮病,虛弱,

                             花生                                                      厭食,消化不良,

                                                                                          焦慮,暴噪

 

維生素B6             魚,禽,肉,        蛋白質代謝         消沉,神智不       感宮失調

                             五轂,蔬菜                                         ,癲癇,皮膚炎,

                                                                                          貧血,生長遲滯,

                                                                                          體重減輕    

 

Folacin                  蔬菜,肝,           -蛋白質代謝         舌炎,胃腸不適,

                             水果,酵母           -制造紅血素          貧血

                                                             及核酸

 

維生素B12           肉,海產,           -生長                     貧血,厭食,體重

                             蛋,奶品               -新陳代謝              減輕,舌炎,臉色

                                                            -紅血球及神經      蒼白,神經失調

                                                             細胞維護

 

維生素B5             肉,禽,魚,      -新陳代謝               嘔吐,腹痛,下肢

                                                        -神經傳導              無力麻木,失眠

 

生物素                  肝,腎,心,      -新陳代謝               嘔吐,厭食,消沉,

                              堅果,蛋黄          -防止掉髮               臉色蒼白,皮膚炎,

                                                                                            掉髮

 

維生素C              水果,蔬菜,       -抗氧化              壞血病,創傷       腹瀉,嘔吐,

                            番茄,                   -膠原維護          癒合不良,齒        抽筋,鐵質

                            馬鈴薯                   -齒齦健康           齦炎,出血,       吸收過量

                                                           -創傷癒合           牙齒鬆落,

                                                           -鐵質吸收           容易瘀青

 

                                                                        礦物質

                     奶品,蔬菜        -骨及牙成長維護     生長遲滯,佝僂病,

                                                     -神經及肌肉功能,    軟骨病,骨質疏鬆,

                                                       心臟功能,凝血       肌肉痙攣

                                                       功能,酶活化

 

                 奶品,肉,禽,       -骨及牙成長維護     骨礦物質過少,

                    五轂,堅果             -酸鹼平衡                 虛弱,厭食

                                                     -活化維生素B

                                                     -新陳代謝

 

                蔬菜,堅果,         -新陳代謝                 神經,精神及         嘔吐,腹瀉,

                    五轂,水果,         -神經及肌肉功能     肌肉疾病,心         虛弱,氣喘,

                    奶                                                               肌功能異常             心律不整,

                                                                                                                        低血壓

 

                鹽,肉,禽,         -水及酸鹼平衡         低血鈉,嘔吐,        高血鈉,虛弱,

                    貝類,蛋,             -神經及肌肉功能     腹瀉,盜汗,         暴噪,水腫,

                                                     -醣吸收                     缺水,肌肉痙攣,     高血壓,

                                                                                       酸血症                      心臟衰竭

 

               水果,蔬菜             -水及滲透平衡          低血鉀,腹漲,      高血鉀,肌肉

                                                    -酸鹼平衡                  肌肉無力,心律      無力,神智不

                                                    -神經及肌肉功能      不整,水腫,          清,心律不整,

                                                    -調節胰島素釋出      低血糖                      心臟衰竭

 

                腎,肉,奶品,       -水及酸鹼平衡          嘔吐,虛弱,

                    蛋,海產                -神經及肌肉功能   鹼血症

                                                    -鉀保存

 

                肉,禽,魚,        -新陳代謝

                                                -凝血功能

                                                    -建造頭髮,指甲

                                                     及其他組織

 

                                                                微量礦物質

               紅肉,肝,心,       -紅血素及肌球素       缺鐵性貧血,      鐵沉積症

                   雞,沙丁魚,             成分                          虛弱

                  大豆,蔬菜,         -輸送氧氣   

                  馬鈴薯,堅果

 

              內臟,貝類,         -制造血色素及           貧血,骨病,    Wilson

                  堅果,五轂             -維護組織                   水腫

 

              碘化鹽,                 -甲狀腺荷爾蒙成分    甲狀腺腫,

                  海產                                                              粘液水腫,

                                                                                        矮呆病

 

              堅果,五轂,         -新陳代謝                    生長遲滯         神經失調,

                  蔬菜,水果                                                                           巴金森氏病

 

               肉,魚,奶品        -生長,創傷癒合,       生長遲滯,貧血,      免疫不良

                                                    醣耐受所需酶            厭食,侏儒症,

                                                    成分                            生殖機能不足,

                                                                                        創傷癒合不良

 

              氟化水,魚             -預防蛀牙                    掉牙,骨質疏鬆

                                                   -防止骨質疏鬆及

                                                    齒齦病

 

               肝,腎,肉,        -維生素B12成分

                   牛奶,蛋                  制造紅血球

                                                    -酶作用

 

                肉,起士,            -新陳代謝                  酶代謝異常       

                    酵母,五轂

 

                海產,腎,             -抗氧化                     免疫不良,        神經失調,

                    肝,肉                    -組織成分                  心肌病變            皮膚疹,掉髮