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                                   Food   Nutrition

                                                           Andrew Ying-Siu Lee, MD,PhD.

 

-  Nutrition is directly related to health, affecting life span, physical and mental well-being, and defence

    against diseases.   So good nutrition = good health.

-  Overnutrition --> atherosclerosis, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, gallbladder disease etc.

   Undernutrition --> anemia, ricket, osteoporosis, goiter etc.

-  Excessive minerals --> hair loss, changes in nearly all body tissues

-  Food provide calorie, nutrients and phytochemicals (for health promotion) for growth and health

-  Daily calorie requirement for men about 2200 Kcal and women about 1500 Kcal, depending on

    achievement of ideal body weight as standard reference,  with 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 12-15% protein.

 

                                                       Six essential nutrients in food

1.  carbohydrates          provide energy and heat ( 1 gm carbohydrate --> 4 Kcal)

2.  fats                                        ,,                        (1 gm fat --> 9 Kcal)

3.  proteins                   build and repair body tissues, also provide energy and heat ( 1 gm protein --> 4 Kcal)

4.  vitamins                  regulate body functions

5.  minerals                                ,,

6.  water                                     ,,

 

                                                       WATER

 

= component of all body cells and tissues.  50-70% body weight.

- Functions = 1. solvent and provide transport for nutrients and waste products

                      2. essential for hydrolysis and thus metabolism

                      3. lubricant in joints and digestion

                      4. cool the body (temperature regulation)

                      5. water and electrolyte balance

                      6. acid-base balance

                                                          Balanced   diet

-  include all above essential nutrients in quantity that preserve and promote good health

-  The Four food groups: -                            number of servings (refer to food exchange list) needed each day

    1.  cereals and breads                                                                           4

    2.  meats                                                                                               2

    3.  vegetables and fruits                                                                        4

    4.  milk and dairy products                                                                 2 - 4

 

                                                          Guidelines

1.  eat variety of foods

2.  maintain ideal body weight

3.  avoid fat, saturated fat and cholesterol

4.  adequate starch and fiber

5.  avoid too much sugar and sodium

6.  moderate quantity if drinking alcohol

 

          TYPES                 FOOD  SOURCE                  FUNCTIONS                   DEFICIENCY           EXCESS

 

                                                                                    CARBOHYDRATES

1. monosaccharides    bread, cereal, cracker,        -  provide energy and heat          fatigue, weight loss     obesity, tooth

    eg. glucose,            rice, potato, corn, pea,        - essential for fat metabolism                                         decay, 

    fructose, galactose  bean, banana, apple,                                                                                                 flatulence

2. disaccharides          pear, sweet dessert,

    eg. sucrose,             sugar, syrup, honey,

    maltose, lactose       candy etc.

3. polysaccharides

    eg, starch, dextrin,

    glycogen, cellulose

                                                                                               FATS

1. fatty acid and        fatty meats eg. bacon,           - provide energy and heat          eczema, weight loss,   obesity, heart

    glycerol                 sausage, butter, cheese,        - essential for functions and       growth retardation       disease,                        

2. triglycerides          cream, whole milk, egg           structures of body tissues                                            cancer

    and cholesterol     yolk                                         eg. cell membranes, carriers

                                 plant foods eg. cooking           of fatty acids and fat-soluble

                                 oil, nut, chocolate                    vitamins

 

                                                                                          PROTEINS

 

amino acids                animal food (highest                - build and repair body tissues       muscle wasting,

                                   quality) eg. meat, fish,             - components of hormones and     edema, poor wound

                                   poultry, egg, milk,cheese           enzymes regulating body            healing, impaired  

                                   plant food (low quality)              processes                                    physical and mental

                                   eg. corn, grain, nut, bean         - provide energy and heat              development

 

                                                                             FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS

 

Vitamin A  fat-containing animal food   - growth                                  growth retardation   anorexia, hair loss,

                  eg. oil, liver, butter, cream,  - maintain healthy eye, skin,   dry rough skin,        irritability, headache,

                  whole milk, cheese, egg         bone, mucous membranes    night blindness,       enlarged liver and spleen,

                  yolk                                     - prevent infections                  increased infection  bone and joint pain, dry

                                                                                                                                              skin, jaundice

 

Vitamin D  sunlight (best source), fatty  - growth                                  tetany, poor bone    nausea, weakness,

                  fish, liver, egg yolk, cream,  - calcium and phosphorous    and teeth formation,  weight loss, polyuria,

                  butter                                      metabolism                          osteoporosis,              azotemia, damage to

                                                               - build and maintain bones     ricket, osteomalacia   kidney, heart and aorta,

                                                                 and teeth                                                                 anorexia

 

Vitamin E    wheat, vegetable, seed oil,     - protect cell structure eg. red    rare.  muscle loss,      similar to  

                    legumes, peanut                     - reproduction                           red cell hemolysis,     hypervitaminosis

                                                                  - antioxidant                              ataxia                         A and D

 

Vitamin K    vegetable, fruit, cereal, dairy      - proper clotting of blood     deficient blood         liver and kidney

                    product, meat (poorest source)                                                coagulation              damage

 

                                                                         WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

 

Vitamin B1    yeast, wheat, pork, organ              - carbohydrate metabolism       anorexia, fatigue, irritability,

 (thiamine)                                                                                                           constipation, beriberi

 

Vitamin B2    organ, milk, vegetable                  - growth                                    stomatitis, cheilosis, dermatitis,

 (riboflavin)                                                        - metabolism of carbohydrate,   headache, eye fatigue

                                                                             fat and protein

                                                                          - tissue maintenance

 

Niacin            meat, poultry, fish,                       - as coenzyme in metabolism    Pellagra, weakness, anorexia,

                      peanut                                                                                            indigestion, anxiety, irritability

 

Vitamin B6    fish, poultry, meat,                 - protein metabolism                   depression, confusion,           sensory

                      cereal, vegetable                                                                        convulsion, dermatitis,          disturbance

                                                                                                                        anemia,  weight loss,

                                                                                                                        growth retardation

 

Folacin          vegetable, liver, fruit,              - protein metabolism                   glossitis, gastrointestinal

                      yeast                                       - hemoglobin and nucleic acid    disturbance,megaloblastic

                                                                       formation                                   anemia

                                                           

Vitamin B12  meat, seafood, egg,                - growth                                       megaloblastic and pernicious

                      dairy products                        - metabolism                                anemia, anorexia, weight loss,

                                                                    - essential for red blood cell         sore mouth and tongue, pallor,

                                                                      and nerve tissue maintenance    glossitis, neurological upsets

 

Vitamin B5    meat, poultry, fish,                - metabolism                                vomiting, abdominal cramp,

(Pantothenic   egg                                       - nerve impulse transmission        insomnia, burning sensation

  acid)                                                                                                              in feet, leg weakness

 

Biotin             liver, kidney, heart, nut,        - metabolism                                nausea, anorexia, depression,

                      egg yolk                                - prevent grey hair and baldness   pallor, dermatitis, baldness

 

Vitamin C     fruit, vegetable, tomato,         - antioxidant                                  scurvy, poor wound          diarrhea, nausea,

                     potato                                    - maintain collagen                        healing,  gingivitis,            cramp, excessive

                                                                  - healthy gum, wound healing,       loose teeth,bruise easily,    iron absorption

                                                                    iron absorption                             gum bleeding,

 

                                                              MACROMINERALS (required in large amount)

 

Calcium        milk and milk products,        - development and maintenance     growth retardation, ricket,

                     vegetable                                of bone and teeth                          osteomalacia, osteoporosis,

                                                                  - nerve and muscle function,           tetany

                                                                    heart function, blood clotting,

                                                                  - activate enzymes

 

Phophorus    milk, cheese, meat,               - development and maintenance      bone demineralization,

                     poultry, fish, cereal,                of bone and teeth                          fatigue, anorexia

                     nut                                        - proper acid-base balance

                                                                  - effective action of several B

                                                                    vitamins

                                                                  - metabolism

 

Magnessium  vegetable, nut, grain,      - metabolism                              mental, emotional and        nausea, diarrhea,

                      fruit,  milk                      - nerve and muscle function       musculardisorders,             weakness, arrhythmias,

                                                                                                               abnormal heart function     dyspnea, hypotension

 

Sodium        salt, meat, poultry,      - control water and acid-base        hyponatremia, nausea,         hypernatremia, edema,

                    egg, milk, cheese,         balance                                       perspiration, dehydration,    irritability, weakness,

                    shellfish                      - nerve and muscle function         acidosis, diarrhea, tetany      hypertension, heart

                                                       - glucose absorption                                                                  failure

 

Potassium    fruit, vegetable           - water and osmosis balance          hypokalemia, abdominal        hyperkalemia, muscle

                                                      - acid-base balance                        bloating,muscle weakness,     weakness, confusion,

                                                      - nerve and muscle function          edema, hypoglycemia,            arrhythmias, heart

                                                      - regulate insulin release                arrhythmias                             failure

 

Chloride      salt, meat, milk, egg,        - water and acid-base balance         nausea, weakness, alkalosis

                   seafood                             - nerve and muscle function

                                                            - potassium conservation

 

Sulfur         meat, poultry, fish, egg     - metabolism

                                                            - blood coagulation

                                                            - build hair, nail and all body tissues

 

 

                                                               MICROMINERALS (required in trace amount)

 

Iron            red meat, liver, heart,         - component of hemoglobin     iron-deficiency anemia,              hemosiderosis,

                  oyster, sardines, soybean,     and myoglobin                      fatigue, weakness                        hemochromatosis

                  vegetable, potato, nut,        - oxygen transport

                  chicken,                    

 

Copper       organ, shell fish, nut,      - component of severeal enzymes      anemia, bone disease,          Wilson's disease

                   cereal                                for formation of hemoglobin           edema

                                                            and metabolism

                                                         - helps maintain and protect tissues

 

Iodine          iodized salt, seafood        - component of thyroid hormone     goiter, myxedema, cretinism

                                                     

 

Manganese   nut, grain, vegetable,    - component of several enzymes      growth retardation            Parkinsonism, central

                     fruit                                 for metabolism                                                                    nervous system damage

 

Zinc           meat, fish, dairy          - component of several enzymes      anorexia, delayed growth,          impair immunity

                  products                        for growth, wound healing,            dwarfism, hypogonadism,

                                                       glucose tolerance                            poor wound healing, anemia

 

Fluorine        fluoridated water, fish    - resist dental caries                           tooth decay, osteoporosis

                                                           - resist osteoporosis and gum disease

 

Cobalt           liver, kidney, meat,        - component of vitamin B12 for red

                      milk, egg                         cell formation

                                                           - essential for action of certain enzymes

 

Chromium    meat, cheese, yeast, grain   - glucose and fat metabolism              disturbance in glucose            cancer

                                                                                                                           metabolism

 

Selenium      seafood, kidney, liver,        - antioxidant                                impair immunity,                    nervous system                      meat                                   - component of most                   cariomyopathy                        disturbance,

                                                                  body tissues                                                                             skin rash, hair

                                                                                                                                                                  loss