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                                 DIET  CONTROL  FOR  DIABETIC  PATIENTS

                                                                      Andrew Ying-Siu Lee, MD,PhD.

 

        The mainstay diet control for diabetic patients is to maintain normal blood sugar and lipids.  Therefore it is important

to restrict calorie, reduce body weight and maintain regular exercise.  Diabetic patients should have divided meals with

small quantity, balanced diet, high fiber (which can reduce glycemic index), plain food (avoid sauted, fried food and

spices) and avoid high fat food, pastries and beverages etc.

 

        Diabetic patients should know and use the "glycemic index of food" and "food exchange" tables, as follow:-

 

(1) GLYCEMIC INDEX OF FOODS:

                                                                                                      glycemic index

grains and cereals                         white bread                                         100

                                                     white rice                                              83

                                                     oat                                                         85

 

vegetabkes                                    potato                                                  135

                                                     yams                                                      74

                                                     peas                                                       74

                                                     sweet potato                                           70

 

fruits                                             raisin                                                      93

                                                     banana                                                   79

                                                     orange                                                    66

                                                     apple                                                       53

                                                     pear                                                         47

                                                     peach                                                      40

                                                     grapefruit                                                36

 

daily products                               ice cream                                                 52

                                                     yogurt                                                      52

                                                     whole milk                                               49

                                                     skim milk                                                 46

 

sweeteners                                    maltose                                                   152

                                                     glucose                                                   138

                                                     honey                                                      126

                                                     sucrose                                                      86

                                                     fructose                                                     30

 

(2)  FOOD EXCHANGE LISTS :

one serving of cereals                 =       1/4 bowl of rice

                                                             1/2 bowel of congee or noodle, rice noodle

                                                             1 pc toast or bread

                                                              3 pc biscuit

                                                              1/4 bowl of sweet potato or potato, taro, red bean, green bean

 

one serving of meat                     =        1 oz meat or fish, chicken, duck, pork, beef, shrimp, crab

                                                              1 pc beancurd or 2 pc dried beancurd

                                                               1 egg

 

one serving of vegetable             =         1 small disk of vegetable or melon, bean

 

one serving of fruit                     =          1 orange or apple, pomegranate, peach, mango

                                                               5 pc lichee or 13 pc grape, 6 pc loquat

                                                               1 slice watermelon or 1/2 grapefruit

 

one serving of fat                       =           1 teaspoon oil or butter

                                                                1 pc bacon

                                                                5 pc almond or cashew or 10 pc pistachios

 

one serving of daily product      =            236 cc fresh milk or 4 teaspoon whole milk powder

 

(3)  RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE FOR DIABETIC PATIENTS :

                                               child/adolescent                              adult                             pregnant

calorie                                               1800                                          1800                                 1800

cereals                                         10 servings                                         12                                     9

meat                                            7 servings (oz)                                    6                                       6

fat                                                5 servings                                           6                                       8

vegetable                                     3 servings (bowl)                                3                                       3

fruit                                              2 servings                                           2                                       2

daily product                                2 servings                                           1                                       2

 

        Choose your favorite servings (preferably low glycemic index foods) according to the food exchange lists and

recommended daily allowance.