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                                 CARDIOMYOPATHIES

                                                    Andrew Ying-Siu Lee, MD,PhD.

 

       Cardiomyopathies mean abnormal heart muscles not due to hypertensive, valvular, pericardial or congenital

heart diseases.  Etiology include: (1) primary cardiomyopathies (idiopathic, hereditary, fibrosis), (2) secondary

cardiomyopathies (infections such as viral or bacterial myocarditis, metabolic, collagen diseases such as systemic

lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, infiltrative such as amyloidosis, tumors, neuromuscular diseases such

as myopathies or polyneuritis, allergy, toxic agents, endomyocardial fibrosis, post-partum, obesity, electrolyte

imbalance, genetic diseases etc.)

 

       Cardiomyopathies are classified as :-

(1)   IDIOPATHIC DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY:

       Characterized by cardiac enlargement with impaired systolic function in one or both ventricles.  Common

symptoms include: fatigue, weakness, exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal

dyspnea, palpitation, chest discomfort, arrhythmias, edema, pulmonary edema etc.

 

       Some patients become stable after medical treatment.  However, most patients continue to worsen and die of

heart failure, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death.

 

(2)   HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY:

       Characterized by myocardial hypertrophy with diastolic rather than systolic dysfunction. Common symptoms

include: dyspnea, chest discomfort, palpitation, dizziness, fainting, sudden cardiac death.

 

       Therapy include medical treatment, cardiac catheterization and surgery.

 

(3)   RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY:

       Characterized by abnormal diastolic heart function due to myocardial fibrosis, infiltration, scarring. 

Common symptoms include: weakness, dyspnea, exertional chest pain, edema.